Art by George Wilson |

In our most recent post, we found that handguns are available for purchase in the setting of

*Starfaring*. Specifically, a handgun costs one megacredit and has an “output” of one standard of energy. Ken St. Andre never defines how much 'energy' is in a standard. Still, we don't need an exact amount as long as the rules address the effect; however, the rules do not do this. Since St. Andre included handguns in the “Store for Starfarers,” he must have anticipated that handguns would be used in

*Starfaring*scenarios. Unfortunately, St. Andre does not incorporate rules for person-to-person combat in the game.

The 'Weapons and Conflict' section of

*Starfaring*pertains exclusively to ship-to-ship combat. Given the speeds and distances involved in starship conflict, St. Andre opines...

With regard to the difficulty of this task, St. Andre states...Even utilizing beam energy weapons which travel at the speed of light, one cannot fire at a ship in a known position, because in combat it will be constantly moving in evasive action, and it will not be there when the ray arrives. Ergo, ships in combat must fire at the point in space where they estimate the other ship will be at a given time. The Shiva Crystals aboard Human ships modulate Brahma Crystal energy into a disruptive beam of force, invisible in itself but accompanied by a pulse of red light to allow for accurate tracking...

In terms of game mechanics...One would almost need to be psychic (as well as lucky) to hit another ship in this game. Fortunately, the Human brains linked to the ship's gunnery computer are psychic, and, depending on the degree of psychic power they have, they can actually foretell the future--in this case, aided by the mathematical interpolations of the computer, they would know where to aim in space.

St. Andre further postulates on page 29,...the result would really be determined by a Saving Roll made by the attacked ship. This Saving Roll would be determined by the mental and psychic attributes of the ship's brain, but would also be affected by distance between the combative ships.

(Evidently, the result is the target number which must be met or exceeded on 2d6. Just as with[W]e are going to come up with a formula for Saving Rolls based on ship's brain psi and mentality ratings, ship's distance, and ship's speed. (Note: if more than one person is bionically linked to the computer, their psi totals are added, but the mentality total is not cumulative and is that of the brightest person in the linkup.) S.R. equals 1000/(Men. plus Psi times 10000/Range in miles all divided by the fraction without the decimal of the speed of light at which the ship is moving. The formula simplifies to 10,000,000/(M -Psi) X R X Sc) where M stands for high Mentality in linkup, Psi is Psi total in linkup, R is approximate range in miles, and Sc is the decimal fraction of the speed of light expressed as a whole number.

*Tunnels & Trolls*, a roll of doubles allows another roll to be added to the total. So, the lower the target number, the easier it is to obtain a successful result.)

There are some inconsistencies in St. Andre's calculations. The ‘simplified’ formula is missing an opening parenthesis while the ‘unsimplified’ formula is missing a closing parenthesis. The total of the Mentality and Psi ratings is part of the denominator (although the ‘simplified’ formula shows a minus sign instead of a plus sign). A larger denominator means a smaller result which, in turn, means an easier target number. This makes sense; greater Mentality and Psi ratings should mean a better chance of success. The ‘unsimplified’ formula shows the inverse of range in the denominator. Since this reduces the denominator, it reduces the chances of success. However, in the ‘simplified’ formula, range is not expressed as an inverse value. This suggests that a greater range means an easier Saving Roll. (Remember, the Saving Roll is to be made by the target vessel to avoid being hit.) Then we have “Sc is the decimal fraction of the speed of light expressed as a whole number.” Wouldn’t that just be 10c? Regardless, a greater speed increases the denominator, meaning an easier Saving Roll for the target.

Interestingly, the attacker's only effect upon the Saving Roll is the distance to the target. The “mental and psychic attributes” of the attacker are not considered.

However one chooses to interpret St. Andre's number crunching, there is a numerator of ten million. On page 29, St. Andre comments, “You can see how handy your own pocket calculator is for calculations of this nature.” In terms of randomization, a calculator is “the expensive, fun way” while a deck of playing cards is “the simple, cheap way.” With regard to calculators, St. Andre advises, “Radio Shack sells an excellent one for $30.” In addition,

Assuming a ship is hit, “its Vishnu field will flare up to shunt off as much of the energy impact as it can.” Energy that the Vishnu field cannot 'shunt off' damages the ship; puncturing the shell and impairing one of the ship's systems. (“No more than one system will be damaged on one shot.”) 'Systems' include: (1) Brahma Crystal, (2) Shiva Crystal, (3) Vishnu Crystal, (4) Warpengine, (5) Crew, and (6) Computers. The amount of damage is determined by rolling 1d6 for “every 500 standards of energy or fraction thereof” that gets past the Vishnu field. On a 'crew' result, the result of the damage die or dice “is how many crew members are killed outright.” Each member of the crew makes a Saving Roll; space armor grants +5 and combat armor offers +10. There is no target number – “Those with the lowest scores are the first to die, until 1 crew member is gone for each hit suffered.”More expensive calculators, which provide many more functions, may be used to generate random numbers by, for example, taking the sine of the input number, dividing it by pi, and then taking the square root, reading your result behind the decimal point. I guarantee you will not be able to anticipate the final result, which means the number is random as far as you are concerned.